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TAKING CARE OF THE ELDERLY: An Illustrated Guide

T M Wang

The Necessary Knowledge and Skills for an Aging Society

Aging population poses a huge challenge to lots of societies in the world. In Hong Kong, it is said that 80 % of the elderly adults prefer to live at home.

This pictorial guide aims to introduce the basic knowledge about caring for elderly to those families who have the need to look after old people at home. It provides useful tips to the elderly to encourage and enable them to take care of themselves in their daily lives so as to help delay the degeneration of their bodies and recover their health.

作者簡介

T M Wang

Wang Tian Ming, M.D. A graduate of Shanghai Medical University, Dr. Tian Ming Wang received his Doctoral Degree of Medicine Science at Nagoya University in Japan in 1987. He worked as doctor in renowned hospitals in Beijing and Japan for years. In the last decade or so, Dr. Wang paid special attention on issues related to aging population. He conducted knowledge exchange with doctors, nurses, care managers and therapists from various elderly clinics and hospitals in Japan and participated in related practices. Dr. Wang’s publications include ‘Super-Selective Carotid Artery Radiography and Its Clinical Application’ and translation of ‘Vascular Cranial Nerves Surgery’ from Russian to Japanese. An Initiative of Charles K. Kao Foundation for Alzheimer’s Disease Ltd. The Charles K. Kao Foundation for Alzheimer's Disease Limited (the "Foundation") is a registered non-profit making charity organization founded in 2010 by Professor Charles K. Kao and his wife, Gwen Kao. The Foundation aims to raise the public awareness of Alzheimer’s disease, educating the general public on brain healthcare strategies, enhancing care and support to Alzheimer's patients, their families and caregivers. The Foundation also aims to encourage and facilitate co-operation amongst the various organizations, such as universities, government departments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to enhance resource allocation and education, thereby further benefitting Alzheimer's patients and their families and the support system.

序言

This book refers to the original Chinese version is written for readers with elderly parents, disabled persons or children at home. We hope that this book will provide you with the assistance as you care for your family members on a regular or even daily basis.

This is an aging society that we live in. People with grey hair are seen everywhere. According to Hong Kong Population Projections 2010-2039 published by the Census and Statistics Department of HKSAR in 2010, the population of Hong Kong is expected to increase to 8.89 million in 30 years, and Hong Kong will become the region where people have the highest life expectancy in the world (83.1 years for men and 90.1 years for women). However, the aging problem in Hong Kong is getting more and more serious. Among every 100 people, there will be 28 senior citizens, and the ratio of population over the age of 65 will rise from 13% in 2009 to 28% in 2039.

With no exception, we will all become old and feeble one day. Our body and health will go downhill, and we will find it increasingly difficult to take proper care of ourselves. There will be a stage when we become growingly dependent on others to care for us on a daily basis. Healthcare is different from medical care as the target recipients of healthcare services are those who are weak and vulnerable, and are yet to be in need of hospitalization. They need a multitude of services to cater for various aspects of their daily needs. Examples include the provision of daily basic care, such as cooking, feeding, washing laundry, bathing, helping them to toilet and tidying their rooms for them. Other instances include chatting with them, reading books and newspaper to them, taking them out for a walk, bringing them to hospitals, or even accompanying them to visit friends and relatives. The list of healthcare services goes on. In a word, caring for the elderly involves helping them with almost every aspect of their daily life. The aim is to improve their quality of life, helping them to live with dignity and meeting their physical and psychological needs, as well as their need for social interaction.

Worldwide research studies show that over 80% of the aged prefer to spend their later years of life at home, as it is a setting familiar to them, and in the company with families and relatives. But sooner or later, they will inevitably lose the ability to take care of themselves in their daily life, either due to illness or because of aging. It will then become part of their lives to receive healthcare services, and part of the life of their family members or caregivers to care for them on a regular basis. In an aging society like ours, it is necessary for every citizen or member of the family to acquire some basic knowledge and skills in caregiving. This book is written with caregiving in a domestic setting in mind. The basic healthcare skills that a caregiver may need are presented with vivid and humorous illustrations provided. Our hope is that this book would be a practical guide that is easy to read and to be put into practice.

This is not a textbook per se. It is a handbook that aims to provide general healthcare knowledge and skills to members of the public. We hope that this handbook can serve as a reference to families and relatives who take care of the elderly at home, or caregivers who live with the elderly or work in elderly homes, or even volunteers.

This book emphasizes its practical use. Each chapter is an independent one and the readers can refer to the relevant chapter and call on the parts that they need. They will find guidance and tips that can readily be put into use. Readers may first skim through the book and then figure out for themselves the most convenient and practical ways to take care of the elderly. They can also share their caregiving experience with others so that we will see an improvement in the standard of caregiving services in the society.

目錄

Foreword.................................................................................................................. 3
Preface...................................................................................................................... 4

Chapter 1 The Fundamentals Of Caring For The Elderly
1 The Basics of Caregiving.......................................................................................... 14
2 Be Mentally Prepared.............................................................................................. 14
Accepting the Reality.............................................................................................. 14
Designating a Caregiver......................................................................................... 14
Deciding on a Caring Regime................................................................................. 15
3 Preparing to Care for the Elderly............................................................................. 15
4 Modifying the Living Environment........................................................................... 17
Objective of Modification........................................................................................ 17
Principle of Modification......................................................................................... 17
Plan of Modification................................................................................................. 18
Safety Measures for Different Rooms ....................................................................... 18
5 Preventative Care..................................................................................................... 20
Preventing the “Geriatric Syndromes” ..................................................................... 20
Eight Things to Note in Preventative Care................................................................ 21
6 Changes in the Physical and Psychological State of the Elderly................................. 24
Physical Changes..................................................................................................... 24
Psychological Changes............................................................................................ 25
7 Communicating with the Elderly.............................................................................. 26
Basic Communication.............................................................................................. 26
Respect the Elderly.................................................................................................. 27
Understand Their Needs.......................................................................................... 28
Send Your Greetings and Show Your Concerns........................................................ 30
8 Be Mentally and Physically Prepared and Protect Yourself......................................... 33
Don’t Force Yourself................................................................................................. 33
Do as You Can......................................................................................................... 33
Be Concerned about the Elderly and Yourself........................................................... 35
Prevent Caregiver's Depression................................................................................ 37
Things to Notice in Caregiving................................................................................. 39
Basic Principles of Lumbago Prevention................................................................... 39
Self-protection......................................................................................................... 42
Massage Therapies for Fatigue Relief....................................................................... 44
9 Caring Regime......................................................................................................... 45
Decide on a Caring Regime ................................................................................... 45

Chapter 2 Caring For The Elderly On A Daily Basis
1 Caring for an Elderly in Bed..................................................................................... 50
Choosing a Bed...................................................................................................... 50
Choosing a Blanket, Bed Sheet, Backrest and Other Items........................................ 52
Comfortable Postures in Bed................................................................................... 53
Sitting posture in bed.............................................................................................. 55
How to Turn Over on Bed....................................................................................... 58
How to Move on Bed............................................................................................. 61
How to Sit up from the Bed.................................................................................... 64
Standing up from sitting position............................................................................ 66
How to Move the Elderly from Bed to Chair............................................................. 69
How to Help the Elderly Return to Bed................................................................... 71
How to Change the Sheet....................................................................................... 72
How to Arrange the Bedroom................................................................................ 77
How to Avoid Contracture by Caregiving................................................................ 79
How to Avoid Talipes Equinovarus........................................................................... 86
Suggestions to Prevent Being Bedridden.................................................................. 87
2 Caregiving for Dining.............................................................................................. 88
Notes for Dining Caregiving................................................................................... 88
How to Make the Elderly Dine Happily.................................................................... 89
Aging and Changes in Diet Habits........................................................................... 90
Adjusting the Diet to Cope with Changes in the Elderly’s Body................................. 91
Monitoring the Nutrition of the Elderly.................................................................... 92
Common Malnutrition Symptoms in the Elderly....................................................... 93
Common Troubles in Eating and Swallowing.......................................................... 93
Ways to Help the Elderly to Eat and Swallow........................................................... 95
Caregiving before and after Feeding........................................................................ 98
Selection of Adaptive Tableware............................................................................ 105
3 Elderly Excretion Care............................................................................................ 107
Principles of Elderly Excretion Care........................................................................ 107
Key Points to Elderly Excretion Care...................................................................... 107
Features of the Elderly Excretion .......................................................................... 109
Toilet Modification................................................................................................ 111
Use of toilet or its substitutes................................................................................ 112
Portable Toilet Seats............................................................................................... 115
Urinals and Bedpans.............................................................................................. 118
Contoured Bedpan................................................................................................ 121
Diaper Pants......................................................................................................... 122
Cleaning the Perineum......................................................................................... 128
4 Cleansing the Body under the Care of a Caregiver................................................. 132
Key Points about Body Cleansing.......................................................................... 132
Daily Cleansing Routine......................................................................................... 134
Grooming the Elderly........................................................................................... 142
Wiping the Body................................................................................................... 146
Taking Showers..................................................................................................... 150
Washing the Body in a Bathtub............................................................................ 152
Getting in and out of the Bathtub (For hemiplegic elderly).................................... 154
A Partial Bath........................................................................................................ 159
5 Changing Clothes under the Care of a Caregiver.................................................... 161
Changing Underwear............................................................................................ 161
Putting on / Taking off Trousers.............................................................................. 165
Putting on / Taking off Trousers under the Partial Care of a Caregiver..................... 166
Putting on / Taking off Pajamas on Bed................................................................ 168
6 Mobility and Caregiving......................................................................................... 174
The Use and Selection of Walking Aids.................................................................. 175
Walking with Conventional Lift Walkers................................................................. 176
The Use and Selection of a Cane............................................................................ 177
Walking on a Cane under the Care of a Caregiver.................................................. 180
Walking without a Cane but under the Care of a Caregiver................................... 181
Movements between Bed, Chairs and Wheelchair.................................................. 184
Moving around in the Wheelchair......................................................................... 191
Moving between the Wheelchair and the Vehicle.................................................. 195
Principles of Choosing a Wheelchair..................................................................... 198
7 Health Management at Home............................................................................... .199
Observation and Record of Health Conditions....................................................... 199
Monitoring Medication.......................................................................................... 204
Preventing Infection.............................................................................................. 206
Points to Note in Infection Prevention................................................................... 208
Preventing Dehydration......................................................................................... 209
How to Deal with Vomiting and Diarrhea............................................................. 211
Dealing with cold.................................................................................................. 212
Preventing and Dealing with Phlegm..................................................................... 214
Preventing falls..................................................................................................... 215

Chapter 3 Coping With Common Diseases For The Elderly
1 Major Neurocognitive Disorder.............................................................................. 218
What is Dementia.................................................................................................. 218
Causes of Dementia............................................................................................... 219
Progression of Dementia........................................................................................ 221
Treatment for Dementia......................................................................................... 221
Rehabilitation Exercise........................................................................................... 222
Principles of Caring for Dementia Patients............................................................. 223
How to Treat the Elderly with Dementia................................................................. 224
How to Cope with the Symptoms of Dementia..................................................... 225
Prevention of Dementia........................................................................................ 231
2 Depression........................................................................................................... .233
Symptoms of Depression........................................................................................ 233
Causes of Depression............................................................................................. 233
Prevention and Coping Strategies for Depression.................................................. 234
3 Hemiplegia........................................................................................................... .235
Differences between Left Hemiplegia and Right Hemiplegia................................... 235
Symptoms of Left and Right Hemiplegia and Caregiving Measures......................... 235
Symptoms of Elderly Patients with Left Hemiplegia................................................ 236
Rehabilitation Training for Hemiplegic Patients....................................................... 236
In-home Rehabilitation for Elderly Hemiplegic Patients.......................................... 238
4 Bedsores.............................................................................................................. .239
Causes and Prevention of Bedsores....................................................................... 239
Risk Factors for Bedsores....................................................................................... 239
How do Pressure Sores Progress?.......................................................................... 240
Who are Prone to Pressure Sores?.......................................................................... 240
Common Locations for Pressure Sores................................................................... 240
Preventive Tools for Pressure Sores......................................................................... 241
Prevention of Bedsores.......................................................................................... 241
How to Treat Bedsores........................................................................................... 242
5 Pathological Changes in Bones and Joints............................................................ .243
Osteoporosis Treatment and Preventive Measures................................................... 243
Caring for Rheumatoid Arthritis............................................................................. 244
Caring for Knee Osteoarthritis (Bone Spurs)............................................................ 246
6 Parkinson’s Disease (Paralysis Agitans)................................................................... .249
What’s Parkinson’s Disease...................................................................................... 249
Four Common Symptoms of Parkinson’s Disease.................................................... 250
Treatment and Caring for Parkinson’s Disease......................................................... 251
7 Speech/Language Disorders, Vision and Hearing Impairments.............................. .254
Caring for Patients with Speech/Language Disorders............................................ 254
Caring for Patients with Vision Impairmen............................................................. 257
Caring for Patients with Senile Hearing Impairment................................................ 258
8 Constipation......................................................................................................... .259
Signs of Constipation............................................................................................. 259
Harmful Effects of Constipation.............................................................................. 259
Prevention of Constipation..................................................................................... 259
Solutions for Constipation...................................................................................... 259

Chapter 4 Knowledge And Countermeasure of Emergency
1 Emergency Situation and How to Deal with them................................................. .262
Evaluation of the Medical Conditions..................................................................... 262
Coping with Emergency Situation......................................................................... 263
Preparing for an Emergency.................................................................................. 264
Calling for an Ambulance...................................................................................... 264
Get Ready the Things to Bring to Hospital before the Ambulance Arrives................ 264
First Aids before Arrival of an Ambulance.............................................................. 265
Cardiac Arrest........................................................................................................ 270

Appendix.............................................................................................................. 272
Afterword.............................................................................................................. 274

產品資料

作者
出版社
ISBN
9789621462794
裝幀
Paperback
著書語言
英文
出版日期
2017-08-18
頁數
278

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